International Journal of Life science and Pharma Reviews (IJLPR)  
   
  Aim and Scope - To publish peer reviewed review articles in rapidly developing field of Pharma and life sciences  
 
Article
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume 12 Issue 3, May 2022    Pages:76-85
The Severity of Covid-19 Infection and Vaccine Side Effects among the Saudi Population

Noara Alhusseini, Aya Ismail, Hani A. Alaswad, Fawzy Abodahab, Shahad Almutahhar, Majd S. Khader, Majed Ramadan, Alaa Alabadi-Bierman and Ismail M. Shakir
[View PDF]
DOI: 10.22376/ijpbs/lpr.2022.12.3.P76-85
Abstract:
COVID-19 first emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan, a city in the Hubie Province of China. Typical COVID-19 symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, and cough, whereas less common symptoms involve sudden onset of ageusia and/or anosmia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The primary objective was to compare the severity of symptoms among individuals infected with COVID-19 who have been vaccinated and those who have not. The second objective is to describe individuals’ post-vaccination side effects and complaints to understand Saudis' aversion to vaccinations. This is a cross-sectional study among residents of Saudi Arabia including Saudis and non-Saudis. An online questionnaire was distributed via several social media channels. Univariate analysis was used to compare respondents’ demographic, COVID-19 infection, and post-vaccination characteristics. Bivariate associations were assessed using Chi-square . Adjacent categories logit model was used to compare severity reported levels and COVID-19 related and demographic factors. A total of 1,432 respondents completed the survey. Most of the infected individuals were not immune at the time of infection and reported more than four symptoms. There was no significant association between vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals in terms of reporting COVID-19 severe infection. On the other hand, there were several significant predictors of reporting severe COVID-19 infection level as number of symptoms, hospitalization, gender, marital status, and education attainment. Men are more likely to report severe COVID-19 complications. Participants who hold a higher degree are more likely to report severe COVID-19 infection. Local side effects included pain, swelling, itchiness, warmth, and bruising at the site of the injection. Systemic side effects included fever, headache, fatigue, period changes, and diarrhea. Allergic side effects include local rash, skin burning, and urticaria. Further research is needed to better understand the severity and side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines and even boosters.
Keywords: COVID-19; Signs And Symptoms; Vaccination; Side-Effects; Saudi Arabia
Full HTML:
  1. Raja AT, Alshamsan A, Al-Jedai A. A. Current COVID-19 vaccine candidates: implications in the Saudi population. Saudi Pharm J. 2020;28(12):1743-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2020.10.019, PMID 33199968.
  2. Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Alkhalifa M, Al Duhailan H, Al Qahtani S, Dawas RA, El Seoudi AA, Alomran N, Omar OA, Alotaibi N, Almudarra SS, Alabdulkarim K, Alqahtani S, Jokhdar H. Launching COVID-19 vaccination in Saudi Arabia: lessons learned, and the way forward. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021;43:102119. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102119.
  3. Al Bahrani S, Albarrak A, Alghamdi OA, Alghamdi MA, Hakami FH, Al Abaadi AK, Alkhrashi SA, Alghamdi MY, Almershad MM, Alenazi MM, El Gezery MH, Jebakumar AZ, Al-Tawfiq JA. Safety and reactogenicity of the ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;110:359-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.07.052, PMID 34320413.
  4. Binsaleh NK, Bazaid AS, Aldarhami A, Sherwani S, Althomali OW. Awareness and practice of COVID-19 precautionary measures among healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2021;14:1553-60. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S317908, PMID 34188482.
  5. Almaghaslah D, Alsayari A, Kandasamy G, Vasudevan R. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among young adults in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional web-based study. Vaccines. 2021;9(4):330. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9040330, PMID 33915890.
  6. Albogami Y, Alkofide H, Alrwisan A. Covid-19 vaccine surveillance in Saudi Arabia: opportunities for real-time assessment. Saudi Pharm J. 2021;29(8):914-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2021.07.005, PMID 34305424.
  7. MOI. Ministry of the Interior: immunization accredited by Health Ministry is prerequisite to enter activities, occasions, and facilities as of August 1. Ministry of the Interior; 2021 [cited 2022. Available from: https://www.my.gov.sa/wps/portal/snp/content/news/newsDetails/CONT-news-260720211/!ut/p/z0/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfIjo8zivQIsTAwdDQz9LQwCXQ0CnV0MfYyNQgwM_M30g1Pz9L30o_ArAppiVOTr7JuuH1WQWJKhm5mXlq8f4ezvF6Kbl1perGtkZmBuZGBkaKhfkO0eDgAFuZ-p/ [cited 19/4/2022].
  8. Magadmi RM, Kamel FO. Beliefs and barriers associated with COVID-19 vaccination among the general population in Saudi Arabia. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1438. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11501-5, PMID 34289817.
  9. Callaway E, Ledford H, Mallapaty S. Six months of coronavirus: the mysteries scientists are still racing to solve. Nature. 2020;583(7815):178-9. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01989-z, PMID 32620885.
  10. Alqahtani AM, AlMalki ZS, Alalweet RM, Almazrou SH, Alanazi AS, Alanazi MA, AlShehri AA, AlGhamdi S. Assessing the severity of illness in patients with coronavirus disease in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2020;8:775. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.593256, PMID 33330336.
  11. McBride DL, LeVasseur SA, Li D. Development and validation of a web-based survey on the use of personal communication devices by hospital registered nurses: pilot study. JMIR Res Protoc. 2013;2(2):e50. doi: 10.2196/resprot.2774, PMID 24280660.
  12. Kosmidis I. Mean and median bias reduction: A concise review and application to adjacent-categories logit models. arXiv preprint arXiv:211202621. 2021.
  13. Menni C, Klaser K, May A, Polidori L, Capdevila J, Louca P, Sudre CH, Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Merino J, Hu C, Selvachandran S, Antonelli M, Murray B, Canas LS, Molteni E, Graham MS, Modat M, Joshi AD, Mangino M, Hammers A, Goodman AL, Chan AT, Wolf J, Steves CJ, Valdes AM, Ourselin S, Spector TD. Vaccine side-effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK: a prospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(7):939-49. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00224-3, PMID 33930320.
  14. Banerji A, Wickner PG, Saff R, Stone Jr CA, Robinson LB, Long AA, Wolfson AR, Williams P, Khan DA, Phillips E, Blumenthal KG. mRNA vaccines to prevent COVID-19 disease and reported allergic reactions: current evidence and suggested approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021;9(4):1423-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.047, PMID 33388478.
  15. Rosenberg ES, Dorabawila V, Easton D, Bauer UE, Kumar J, Hoen R, Hoefer D, Wu M, Lutterloh E, Conroy MB, Greene D, Zucker HA. COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in New York state. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(2):116-27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116063, PMID 34942067.
  16. Li X, Zhong X, Wang Y, Zeng X, Luo T, Liu Q. Clinical determinants of the severity of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(5):e0250602. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250602, PMID 33939733.
  17. Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, Akdis CA, Gao YD. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020;75(7):1730-41. doi: 10.1111/all.14238, PMID 32077115.
  18. Alsofayan YM, Althunayyan SM, Khan AA, Hakawi AM, Assiri AM. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A national retrospective study. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(7):920-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.026, PMID 32534945.
  19. Buonanno P, Galletta S, Puca M. Estimating the severity of COVID-19: evidence from the Italian epicenter. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(10):e0239569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239569, PMID 33002036.
  20. Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, Winskill P, Whittaker C, Imai N, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Thompson H, Walker PGT, Fu H, Dighe A, Griffin JT, Baguelin M, Bhatia S, Boonyasiri A, Cori A, Cucunubá Z, FitzJohn R, Gaythorpe K, Green W, Hamlet A, Hinsley W, Laydon D, Nedjati-Gilani G, Riley S, van Elsland S, Volz E, Wang H, Wang Y, Xi X, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Ferguson NM. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(6):669-77. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7, PMID 32240634.
  21. Chidambaram V, Tun N, Haque W, Gilbert Majella M, Kumar Sivakumar R, Kumar A, et al. Factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(11).
  22. Alimohamadi Y, Sepandi M, Taghdir M, Hosamirudsari H. Determine the most common clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Prev Med Hyg. 2020;61(3):E304-12. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.3.1530, PMID 33150219.
  23. Ochani R, Asad A, Yasmin F, Shaikh S, Khalid H, Batra S, Sohail MR, Mahmood SF, Ochani R, Hussham Arshad M, Kumar A, Surani S. COVID-19 pandemic: from origins to outcomes. A comprehensive review of viral pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and management. Infez Med. 2021;29(1):20-36. PMID 33664170.
  24. Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, Bernacchia D, Siano M, Oreni L, Rusconi S, Gervasoni C, Ridolfo AL, Rizzardini G, Antinori S, Galli M. Self-reported Olfactory and Taste Disorders in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Cross-sectional Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(15):889-90. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa330.
  25. Recalcati S. Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: a first perspective. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020;34(5):e212-3. doi: 10.1111/jdv.16387, PMID 32215952.
  26. Kadali RAK, Janagama R, Peruru S, Malayala SV. Side effects of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: A randomized, cross-sectional study with detailed self-reported symptoms from healthcare workers. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;106:376-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.047, PMID 33866000.
  27. AN HM, Alhaj-Qasem DM, Olaimat TM, et al. Side effects and perceptions following COVID-19 vaccination in Jordan: a randomized, cross-sectional study implementing machine learning for predicting severity of side effects. hat mal MmM, Al-Hatamleh MA, Olaimat. Vaccines. 2021;9(6):556.
  28. El-Shitany NA, Harakeh S, Badr-Eldin SM, Bagher AM, Eid B, Almukadi H, Alghamdi BS, Alahmadi AA, Hassan NA, Sindi N, Alghamdi SA, Almohaimeed HM, Mohammedsaleh ZM, Al-Shaikh TM, Almuhayawi MS, Ali SS, El-Hamamsy M. Minor to moderate side effects of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi residents: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:1389-401. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S310497, PMID 33907443.
  29. Saeed BQ, Al-Shahrabi R, Alhaj SS, Alkokhardi ZM, Adrees AO. Side effects and perceptions following Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccination. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;111:219-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.013.
  30. Sprent J, King C. C. COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccine side effects: the positives about feeling bad. Sci Immunol. 2021;6(60):eabj9256. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abj9256, PMID 34158390.
  31. Riad A, Pokorná A, Attia S, Klugarová J, Koš?ík M, Klugar M. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine side effects among healthcare workers in the Czech Republic. J Clin Med. 2021;10(7):1428. doi: 10.3390/jcm10071428, PMID 33916020.
  32. Menni C, Klaser K, May A, Polidori L, Capdevila J, Louca P, Sudre CH, Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Merino J, Hu C, Selvachandran S, Antonelli M, Murray B, Canas LS, Molteni E, Graham MS, Modat M, Joshi AD, Mangino M, Hammers A, Goodman AL, Chan AT, Wolf J, Steves CJ, Valdes AM, Ourselin S, Spector TD. Vaccine side-effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK: a prospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(7):939-49. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00224-3, PMID 33930320.
 
© 2010-2015 IJLPR rights reserved. Specialized onine journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions