International Journal of Life science and Pharma Reviews (IJLPR)  
International Journal of Life science and Pharma Research (IJLPR)
Life Science
Volume 10 Issue 5, December 2020    Pages:20-30
Identification and Characterisation of Moonlight Proteins from Insect Brain Tissue Lysate

Siddharth Sagar and Jayaprada Rao Chunduri
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DOI: 10.22376/ijpbs/lpr.2020.10.5.L20-30
Moonlight proteins are multifunctional proteins i.e, capable to perform multiple physiologically relevant biochemical or biophysical functions other than the one assigned in cell. Studies indicated that some of these play an important role in disease, identifying novel biochemical pathways, protein mechanisms in system biology and help in improving the prediction of protein functions.  Discovery of antibiotics leads to the control of bacterial and fungal infections. Consistent over dose of antibiotics led to development of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria. Plants and animals based proteins proved to work against drug-resistant bacteria.  For e.g., insects like cockroaches release antibacterial peptides in their hemolymph when induced with pathogenic bacteria like E.coli. In our previous study, the proteins isolated from brain tissue lysate of cockroaches also showed significant control on the growth of drug-resistant and pathogenic bacteria. Current study deals with identification and characterisation of two such proteins isolated from the brain tissue of cockroach.  Their identification will help in bringing better understanding and assess to their future course of action. Mass spectrometer (MS) technique combined with high-resolution Q-Exactive orbitrap and liquid chromatography (LC) were considered for identification of protein in crude tissue lysate samples that were separated in the polyacrylamide gel. Of the 79 proteins identified from crude brain tissue lysate, the two proteins Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Transferrin isolated using gel based technique were identified by Q-TOF HRLC-MS/MS and their structure homology was modelled using SWISS MODEL . These two proteins have already been proved to behave as antibacterial, also they play a very important role in cellular glucose metabolism and iron transport in others, defining their moonlight property. Due to this property, they can as well be used to address the increasing problem of multidrug antibiotic resistance.  These can be assessed and studied further for their possible action on bacteria  which can help in the development of new peptide drugs.
Keywords: Drug resistant bacteria; antibacterial protein; mass spectrometer; structure homology modelling.
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